Category: Tutorials

Electronics and Programming tutorials and projects

led resistor calculation

LED Resistor Calculation

This article is about how to calculate LED resistor. The working voltage of most of the LEDs/Power LEDs is between 2-4 volts. Sometimes our power source may supply a higher voltage (e.g. 5V), so if we try to turn on the LED with higher voltage, the LED burns. The LEDs are making with different specifications,…
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fat16 protocol FAT 协议

FAT protocol (drive format)

This article provides an overview of a storage hardware protocols. FAT16 or FAT protocol can format memories up to two gigabytes. FAT protocol In the FAT protocol, data is categorized only, and by reading the beginning of the hard disk, you can know the address of the data. The starting location of a drive which…
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d latch flip flop

D Latch Flip-Flop Chip Design

A D Latch flip flop is in fact a one bit “Random Access Memory (RAM)”. That means at the start up, “Q” pin may be “1” or “0”. With paralleling 8 of D. Latches, you can make an 8-bit or one byte RAM. The D Latch that I had designed on a paper is a…
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nokia lcd 6125 n71 6100

Nokia LCD (6125) setup and programming

Here’s a simple circuit and code which is compatible with PCF8833 driver for old Nokia LCD (tiny LCDs) such as 1208, 1600, 2126, 2310, 6100, 6125, N71. The circuit and code in this project is compatible with PCF8833 STN RGB – 132*132*3 LCD driver. This LCD driver has been used for some Nokia tiny LCDs…
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WiFi controllable robot 4 - WiCard 并联和串联电阻器

Advantages and disadvantages of connecting resistors in series and parallel

Based on experience, in standard circuit design, I do not recommend to connect resistors in parallel or series. However, sometimes due to reasons such as the need for high consumption power, we may need to use series and parallel resistors. This article was requested by one of the visitors. ***””Electronics, Programming and Arduino projects, including…
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Operational Amplifier IC (OP-AMP)

Operational Amplifier ICs (Op-Amp ICs) are usable for amplifying weaker voltages and currents. For example, the output of a signal generator with is a current of 10 micro-amps with 3 volts oscillation, but our circuit needs a 3 volts signal with a 3 milli-amps current. With using an operational amplifier, we provide the required current…
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pwm amplifier

Transistor amplifier

In general, a transistor amplifier is a circuit for amplifying an analog signal or a digital data carrier signal. For example, the output audio signal of a microphone is very weak and the audio oscillation is in a very low voltage range. With a transistor audio amplifier, its output can be increased to the standard…
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Electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic fields

This article first deals with simple definitions related to electric and magnetic fields, then enters the subject of the combination of these two fields, which is called electromagnetism and electromagnetic field. This article is a continuation of the basic electronics article. ***””Electronics, Programming and Arduino projects, including the source codes, schematics and PCB plans for…
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wicard breadboard

Capacitor applications in the circuit design

In the previous articles, I introduced the capacitor and its calculations. This article is about some examples of capacitor applications and how to use it in the circuit design. Circuits are generally divided into three categories: digital, analog or combined. The role of capacitors in each of these circuits is different, but the function of…
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ir remote

Circuit design and construction

You must have realized what electronic circuit means during your life. In general, we can have this definition of an electronic circuit: A set of parts which their pins are connected in a special way with a conductive material (such as copper) to each other and they are supposed to make changes to the incoming…
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